Tuesday, August 25, 2020

The Golden Age of Greece Essays - Ancient Greek Architecture

The Golden Age of Greece Essays - Ancient Greek Architecture The Golden Age of Greece The antiquated sculptures and stoneware of the Golden Stone Age of Greece were a lot progressed in terrific manners. The verifiable realities of Zeuss primary purpose behind his sculpture. The extraordinary styles of the Kouros and the Kore. The tale of The Blinding of Polphemus, alongside the tale of Cyclops. The Dori and Ionic section stone sanctuaries that were worked in Greece that had an unmistakable look. The real nature of the jar, Aryballos. The container that conveyed fluids starting with one spot then onto the next. The Lyric Poetry that was initially a tune to be sung to the backup of the lyre. Zeus was thought of, as indicated by Homer, the dad of the divine beings and of humans. He didn't make either divine beings or humans; he was their dad in the feeling of being the defender and ruler both of the Olympian family and of mankind. He was ruler of the sky, the downpour god, and the cloud finder, who employed the horrible thunderclap. His breastplate was the aegis, his winged creature the bird, his tree the oak. Zeus managed the divine beings on Mount Olympus in Thessaly. His chief places of worship were at Dodona, in Epirus, the place where there is the oak trees and the most antiquated holy place, celebrated for its prophet, and at Olympia, where the Olympian Games were commended in his respect each fourth year. The Nemean games, held at Nemea, northwest of Argos, were likewise devoted to Zeus. Zeus was the most youthful child of the Titans Cronus and Rhea and the sibling of the divinities Poseidon, Hades, Hestia, Demeter, and Hera. As indicated by one of the antiquated legends of the introduction of Zeus, Cronus, expecting that he may be ousted by one of his kids, gulped them as they were conceived. Upon the introduction of Zeus, Rhea enveloped a stone by wrapping up garments for Cronus to swallow and disguised the newborn child god in Crete, where he was benefited from the milk of the goat Amalthaea and raised by fairies. At the point when Zeus developed to development, he constrained Cronus to eject different kids, who were anxious to take retaliation on their dad. Zeus from now on governed over the sky, and his siblings Poseidon what's more, Hades were given control over the ocean and the black market, individually. The earth was to be managed in like manner by each of the three. Starting with the works of the Greek artist Homer, Zeus is envisioned in two altogether different ways. He is spoken to as the lord of equity and benevolence, the defender of the frail, and the punisher of the fiendish. As spouse to his sister Hera, he is the dad of Ares, the divine force of war; Hebe, the goddess of youth; Hephaestus, the lord of fire; and Eileithyia, the goddess of labor. At the equivalent time, Zeus is portrayed as beginning to look all starry eyed at one lady after another and falling back on a wide range of stunts to conceal his disloyalty from his better half. Accounts of his adventures were various in antiquated folklore, and a considerable lot of his posterity were a consequence of his affection issues with the two goddesses and mortal ladies. It is accepted that, with the turn of events of a feeling of morals in Greek life, the possibility of a lewd, once in a while crazy dad god got tacky, so later legends would in general present Zeus in an increasingly lifted up light. His numerous undertakings with humans are some of the time clarified as the desire of the early Greeks to follow their heredity to the dad of the divine beings. Zeus' picture was spoken to in sculptural fills in as a royal, whiskery figure. The most celebrated of all sculptures of Zeus was Phidias' gold and ivory monster at Olympia. The standing bare youth (kouros), the standing hung young lady (kore), and the situated lady. All underscore and sum up the fundamental highlights of the human figure and show an undeniably precise understanding of human life systems. The young people were either sepulchral or votive sculptures. Models are Apollo (Metropolitan Museum), an early work; Strangford Apollo from Lmnos (British Museum, London), an a lot later work; and the Anavyssos Kouros (National Museum, Athens). A greater amount of the musculature what's more, skeletal structure is obvious in this sculpture than in prior works. The standing, hung young ladies have a wide scope of articulation, as

Saturday, August 22, 2020

My Leadership Style Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

My Leadership Style - Essay Example As per the course reading Generalist Practice with Organization and Communities, composed by Karen Ashman and Grafton Hull, driving involves â€Å"working with different frameworks, regardless of whether people, families, gatherings, associations, or communities†(K., and H., 2008). As far as the working environment, authority is a key segment in guaranteeing an organization’s achievement. A piece of guaranteeing this achievement is a leader’s capacity to convey successfully. Inside the article, â€Å"Ingredients of a Good Leader, correspondence has a few purposes. On the off chance that a pioneer is a decent communicator, they will have the option to save a positive situation for their team(Andolsen, 2008). This is because of the way that compelling correspondence will take out disarray. As far as I can tell, I have managed ventures where no one recognized what their job was or what they should do. As a pioneer, I sat everybody down and plainly illuminated what their own individual undertaking was and how it would interconnect to the general venture. The capacity to direct can be a fairly repetitive and troublesome undertaking. It is difficult to realize how hands on to be or how hands off to be. A cautious parity must be struck and a decent pioneer will have the option to distinguish that balance. There are a couple of key territories that a pioneer must be adroit at when overseeing others. Andolsen uncovers that having the option to perceive a person’s capacities, appointing undertakings, and the capacity to set gauges and order are significant factors in being effective at supervising(Andolsen, 2008). Appointment is the place the pioneer distributes undertakings that must be practiced. Appointment goes connected at the hip with perceiving someone’s capacities. In the event that an individual is especially solid in one zone, the pioneer should attempt to appoint undertakings to this individual that will play on those equiva lent qualities. As far as I can tell, I have been accountable for a couple of tasks, both scholastic and expert, where I expected to hand over the rules to someone else and administer their advancement. It is hard to do in such a case that they mess up, the issue stays with the chief. At last, a great head should have the option to fill in as a group. This is like showing others how its done in that the group should have the option to see the pioneer in a progressively equivalent position. Collaboration is another approach to do this. The initial phase in this procedure is to make a â€Å"spirit of cooperation. Andolsen characterizes this as â€Å"the conviction that there is an incentive in the work being done and that it must be practiced by a helpful cooperative energy among group members†(Andolsen, 2008). In a feeling of collaboration, everybody in the group must feel that they are a significant resource and are of worth. Collaboration and the soul of cooperation can lik ewise decide how well the pioneer and their group will cooperate. In the article entitled, â€Å"Generosity and the Moral Imagination in the Practice of Teamwork† the significance of cooperation is talked about. â€Å"We should contemplate the talks inside which we work and how needs are surveyed and spoken to on the grounds that these effect†¦ trust, relational connections, and†¦ultimately meeting staff needs†(Arber, 2009). At the point when a pioneer can effectively fuse a feeling of cooperation, they are likely going to fortify their group regarding having the option to meet objectives and furthermore to impart a synergistic inclination for their group. So as to rouse others to finish their objectives, it is imperative to show others how its done. Inside the article enti

Sunday, August 9, 2020

What Is Permissive Parenting

What Is Permissive Parenting Theories Developmental Psychology Print Permissive Parenting Characteristics and Effects By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Reviewed by Reviewed by Amy Morin, LCSW on July 01, 2019 facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our Wellness Board Amy Morin, LCSW Updated on August 15, 2019 Illustration by Hugo Lin, Verywell More in Theories Developmental Psychology Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology In This Article Table of Contents Expand Research Characteristics of Permissive Parenting Effects Strategies View All Back To Top Permissive parenting is a type of parenting style characterized by low demands with high responsiveness. Permissive parents tend to be very loving, yet provide few guidelines and rules. These parents do not expect mature behavior from their children and often seem more like a friend than a parental figure. These parents tend to be the polar opposite of the so-called helicopter parents. Instead of hovering over their childrens every move, permissive parents are incredibly lax  and rarely make or enforce any type of rules or structure. Their motto is often simply that kids will be kids. While they are usually warm and loving, they make little or no attempt to control or discipline their kids. Because there are few rules, expectations, and demands, children raised by permissive parents tend to struggle with self-regulation and self-control. Early Research on Permissive Parenting Based on her research with preschool-age children, developmental psychologist Diana Baumrind described three major  parenting styles. In later years, researchers would continue to investigate the different styles of parenting and even added a fourth style. Permissive parenting is one of the original parenting styles described by Baumrind. Permissive parenting is sometimes known as indulgent parenting. Parents who exhibit this style make relatively few demands on their children. Because these parents have low expectations for self-control and maturity, discipline is a rarity. According to Baumrind, permissive parents are more responsive than they are demanding. They are nontraditional and lenient, do not require mature behavior, allow considerable self-regulation, and avoid confrontation. Characteristics of Permissive Parenting Permissive parents: Have few rules or standards of behaviorWhen there are rules, they are often very inconsistentAre usually very nurturing and loving towards their kidsOften seem more like a friend, rather than a parentMay use bribery such as toys, gifts, and food as a means to get a child to behaveProvide little in the way of a schedule or structureEmphasize their childrens freedom rather than responsibilityAsk their childrens opinions on major decisionsRarely enforce any type of consequences The Effects of Permissive Parenting Researchers have found that the overly relaxed approach to parenting exhibited by permissive parents can lead to a number of negative outcomes. Children raised by permissive parents tend to lack self-discipline, possess poor social skills, may be self-involved and demanding, and may feel insecure due to the lack of boundaries and guidance. Research has also suggested that kids raised by permissive parents: Display low achievement in many areas. Because their parents have little to no expectations of them, these kids have nothing to strive toward. Studies have linked permissive parenting to lower academic achievement.Make poor decisions. Since their parents to not set or enforce any type of rules or guidelines, these kids struggle to learn good problem-solving and decision-making skills.Display more aggression and less emotional understanding. Because they do not learn to deal with their emotions effectively, particularly in situations where they do not get what they want, children with permissive parents may struggle when faced with stressful or emotionally difficult situations.May be more prone to delinquency and substance use. Studies suggest that children raised by permissive parents are more likely to engage in misconduct and alcohol or substance use.Unable to manage their time or habits. Because of the lack of structure and rules in the home, these kids never learn limits. This mi ght lead to watching too much television, playing too many computer games, and eating too much. These children never learn to limit their screen time or eating habits, which can lead to unhealthy habits and obesity. In one study, permissive parenting was linked to underage alcohol use; teens with permissive parents were three times more likely to engage in heavy drinking. Researchers also suggest that permissive parenting is linked to other risky behaviors such as drug use and other forms of misconduct. Because permissive parenting involves a lack of demands and expectations, children raised by parents with this style tend to grow up without a strong sense of self-discipline. They may be more unruly in school due to the lack of boundaries in the home and may be less academically  motivated  than many of their peers. Since these parents have few requirements for mature behavior, children may lack skills in social settings. While they may be good at interpersonal communication, they lack other important skills such as sharing. What Can You Do About Permissive Parenting? If you tend to be a pushover or struggle to enforce rules, consider looking for ways that you can develop some more authoritative parenting habits. This can be difficult at times, because it often means becoming stricter, enforcing rules, and being able to cope with your child being upset. Some strategies you might consider: Develop a list of basic household rules. In order for your kids to know how they are supposed to behave, they need to clearly understand what your expectations are.Make sure your kids understand the penalty of breaking the rules. Guidelines are useless unless there is some sort of consequence for failing to follow them. Time-outs and losing privileges are logical consequences for breaking the household rules.Follow through. This can be the greatest struggle for parents who tend to be permissive, but it is important. Try to be firm and consistent, but still loving. Help your kids understand why such rules are important by providing adequate feedback and explanations, but still make sure that consequences are in place.Reward good behavior. Try to catch your children being good and allow special privileges when they display these actions. A Word From Verywell Permissive parenting can lead to a number of problems, so it pays to consciously try to utilize a more authoritative approach if you recognize these signs of permissiveness in your own parenting.  If you tend to be more of a permissive parent, think of ways that you can help your children understand your expectations and guidelines and be consistent about your enforcement of these rules. By providing your kids with the right balance of structure and support, you can ensure that they grow up with the skills they need to succeed in life.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Mike Tyson Essay - 3157 Words

Mike Tyson Mike Tyson, the youngest ever heavyweight boxing champion of the world was born in a ghetto in the state of New York. His Father departed the family home two years after his birth, leaving his Mother to raise three children with very limited financial means. Subsequently, his Mother found a new partner who was abusive and violent. She then turned to alcohol in an attempt to escape from her existence. Michael, now aged five years, felt neglected and unloved by her but at this time he was unaware that his Mother was suffering from terminal cancer. (Gutteridge Giller, 1996) Tormented by older children because of his high-pitched voice and clothes from a school charity group,†¦show more content†¦(Calder-Smith, 2004) During the next decade, Tyson was sentenced to six years for the rape of a model. His wife divorced him for alleged domestic violence, and he lost his boxing licence for biting his opponent’s ear during a boxing match. (Gutteridge Giller, 1996) In order to understand Mike Tyson’s motivations for assaulting and robbing people and sexually abusing women, to attaining the highest accolades for boxing then having his licence revoked for grievous bodily harm, it may be helpful to consider his personality. Personality has been noted by Allport, (1961, cited in Corey 2001, p28) as being â€Å"the dynamic organisation within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behaviour and thought.† However, the structure of someone’s personality varies greatly according to which theorist one considers. Sigmund Freud (1856-1934) and Karen Horney (1885-1952) are two such theorists. Freud asserted that personality was biologically determined and structured from three systems namely: the id, the ego and the superego which work together and shape a person’s behaviour. Freud stressed that there is competition between these three systems for control over the available psychic energy. (Mischel, 1971) Horney on the other hand,Show MoreRelatedThe Criminological Theory For Mike Tyson956 Words   |  4 Pages The criminological theory for Mike Tyson is a classical theory. The criminological theory classical is â€Å"Crime occurs when the benefits outweigh the costs- when people pursue self- interest in the absence of effective punishments. Crime is a free-willed choice. See also deterrence, rational choice.† Mike Tyson allegedly raped her on July 19 in his hotel room. Mike Tyson was convicted with rape on March 26, 1992. That put a pause in the famous Mike Tyson boxing career for a while. Rape is a despicableRead MoreMike Tyson; Its Not What You Think1280 Words   |  6 PagesThis biographical sketch will explore Mike Tyson’s life of victories, personal, and professional losses. Mike Tyson, born Michael Gerard Tyson, was born June 30, 1966, in Brooklyn, New York to Jimmy Kirkpatrick and Lorna Tyson. Jimmy abandoned the family in 1968, when Mike was two years old, leaving Lorna to care for Mike and his two siblings, Rodney and Denise. My selection of Mike Tyson for a case study was based a several intriguing factors about him that gained my attention. Any documentaryRead MoreMasculinity of Mike Tyson2700 Words   |  11 Pagesâ€Å"Iron Mike† Events, icons, technology, and environment affect the male population in America. Most males have a person they look up to for inspirations and motivations. Males want to be tough and strong, and they want to be feared by other males. Males enjoy being better than everyone else and impressing women. When a successful male icon experiences a downfall, most men are shocked and fear for their own downfall. Mike Tyson is an example of a successful male whose downfall became a public spectacleRead MoreMike Tyson the Iron Life2040 Words   |  9 PagesChris Torres Mr. Breen History-1945 The Life of â€Å"Iron† Mike Tyson What do you think it takes to be called â€Å"Iron† Mike Tyson? What kind of experiences do you have to go through before you are labeled as the â€Å"Baddest Man on the planet†? What people don’t understand is the life style and background in which Mike Tyson grew up in. The surroundings meaning the streets, the gangs and the era of drugs kicked in and kicked in enough that teens were awareRead MoreEssay on Satire of Mike Tysons Biting the Ear of Evander Holyfield525 Words   |  3 PagesAli or George Foreman. There are present boxers like â€Å"Bite† Tyson and his colleague Evander â€Å"Holyears†. Boxing has been considered by many as a brutal sport, a sport for beasts, as many non- boxing fans would say. Mike Tyson has given credit to all this talk by boxing with his mouth and not with his hands. With Mike Tyson’s cannibalism and his boxing license being in jeopardy, his next opponent can be an alligator or a paranà ¡ fish.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Mike Tyson’s style of boxing can well be described as cannibalisticRead MoreBoxing Should Not be Banned Essay923 Words   |  4 Pagesimitate this aggressive behaviour in their everyday lives. Other evidence would suggest that excessive aggression could lead to criminal behaviour. Mike Tyson, for example, is a role model for many children, but is he a very good role model? Do you think that it is right for children to hear or see about the things that Mike Tyson has done? Are rape, assault or biting someone’s ear off the kind of things you want your children to see? However, it could be argued that manyRead MoreBanning Boxing Essay746 Words   |  3 PagesBanning Boxing Last year half the world stood still for one of the biggest spectacles in sport - a championship-boxing match. In May 2002, Lennox Lewis and Mike Tyson stepped in the ring to settle a yearlong grudge by fighting each other. For the event, both men were flown to Las Vegas, Nevada, where they trained for weeks and prepared themselves for the bout. The revenue created from stadium seats, advertising and pay-per-view television (arranged by Don King of course)Read MoreThe Impact Of The Media On Society1787 Words   |  8 Pagesâ€Å"Winning brings about media glorification and expectation, and/or jealousy and criticism. Losing brings forth negative judgment and more criticism† (Ott et al. 2008). For example Mike Tyson, the boxing star, quickly rose to become a professional making him one of the most media covered and admired boxers. For almost 5 years Tyson seemed unbeatable, earning multiple champion titles like the World Boxing Council Heavyweight Title and the International Boxing Federation Heavyweight title, and many more.Read MoreCompany Analysis2873 Words   |  12 PagesTyson Foods, Inc. Company Analysis Strategic Management Table of Contents Introduction Executive Summary Page 3-4 SWOT Analysis Strengths Page 5 Weaknesses Page 5-6 Opportunities Page 6-7 Threat Page 7 Matrices EFE Page 8-9 IFE Page 9-10 CFM Page 11-12 Graphs Page 13 Financial Statement Analysis Ratios Page 14 Graph Page 15 Analysis of Ratios Page 16 Read MoreAnalysis Of Susan Bordo s Globalization Of Eating Disorders 993 Words   |  4 PagesOne might say though that men and women need this self-image restoring, that they might be okay with the fact of improving their bodies due to influence from media. For example, you take Mike Tyson or Bruce Lee. During their time, they were the main influences for self-image. Everyone wanted to be like Mike Tyson: big, strong, fast, defined. Or like Bruce Lee, a quick fighter. Typically when people are concerned with their bodies, they are concerned about themselves as well. People strived to be like

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Action Research Literature Review - 2754 Words

Executive Summary Action Research believes that Human organizations can only be understood as whole entities (Baskerville, 1999) and that social processes are best to be studied when change is introduced to observe the effects of these. Furthermore, It makes use of a cyclical approach in order for an initial holistic understanding of a social setting. The action research literature has strongly challenged the character of positivism. It is believed that this type of research is derived from a different ontological basis; it tends to a humanistic social practice rather than a traditional natural science. Lewin started with the term ‘action research. His approach to the process is composed of a circle of planning, action and†¦show more content†¦Interpretivism beliefs that the world is socially constructed and subjective, that the observer is part of the what is observed and that science is driven by human interest. Furthermore, interpretivism, like action research, tries to understand what actually is happening by looking at the totality of each situation. Positivism is a research philosophy that involves working with the observable social reality. The emphasis is on highly structured methodology to facilitate replication, and the end product can be law-like generalisations similar to those produced by the physical and natural scientists (Saunders, 2003). The basic beliefs are that the world can be seen as an external and objective object where the observer remains independent. The action research literature has strongly challenged the character of ‘positivist research (Waterman et al, 2001; Hart, 1996; Susman and Evered, 1978). These can be summarised as follows:  § The impossibility of achieving the assumption of objectivity in research findings and outcomes as well as the ability to control a limited number of research variables.  § A critique of the notion of researchers attaining a detached/value free/neutral position and a recognition of the existence of oppressive ideologies and vested interests;  § A questioning of a ‘scientific approach and the features of generalisability,Show MoreRelatedThe Psychological Impact Of Bullying1366 Words   |  6 Pagesneed to find out the cause or causes of the problem before constructing your plan and this is where research comes in. Research conducted to solve issues or problems in schools or educational systems are termed Action Research. After sitting and discussing issues and problems in our education system we decided to tackle the issue of the psychological impact of bullying. The purpose of our action research was to attempt to improve students’ academic performance by trying to lessen or eliminate the occurrencesRead MoreEvaluation Of A Project On Training Curriculum Development1198 Words   |  5 PagesI. INTRODUCTION This capstone project literature review intends among others things, to refine the research ideas, demonstrate awareness of the current state of knowledge on training curriculum development, its limitations and how the research fits in the context of a learning organization. This research process makes a good starting point for the capstone project. The research uses evidence from conceptual theories to database research literature from several learning organizations training Read MoreAmerican Educational System1220 Words   |  5 Pagestopic is how to discipline students. The authors state, â€Å"student responses to teachers’ disciplinary techniques can be unpredictable and require quick reactions on the part of the teacher.† This sets the context for the more specific research problem. b. Research Problem As the title of the article suggests, cultural synchronization between the teacher and the students can be influential in discipline. This is illustrated in the authors’ transcription of an interaction among students and theRead MoreThe Social Aspect Of Family855 Words   |  4 Pagesdetermine your actions against one concept or if it’s just a handful of people that are in your everyday life. One social aspect that draws my attention is the role a person has to play in their family and the social aspects that have to do with the way they think and act. Doing research in social topics can be difficult at times because sometimes you do not know where or how to even begin the research. But in doing research there is one process that is important and that is, a literature review. LiteratureRead MoreSexual Crimes Committed Against Wsv Victims764 Words   |  4 Pagesthe review of literature was wide. Literature was reviewed in the general areas of communications, sexual violence, and cultural studies. The extensive literature review was necessary in order to determine that the research topic, which has factors from so many fields, was not covered in prior research conducted in any of the disciplines. In the area of communications, literature reviewed included that which addressed the issues of journalistic ethics and collective action theory. The review of theRead MoreGlobalization And Mass Migration Is A Diverse And Dynamic Place1208 Words   |  5 Pageseducational research is crucial, so that educational practices and pedagogies are informed by research for the benefit of students’ learning and development. With the increase of refugee background students there has been a need for the implementation and evaluation of strategies and policies in order to establish appropriate ways to engage with the complex issues around refugee background students’ transition to education. This can be seen through the creation of the Refugee Actio n Support ProgramRead MoreUncertainty Risk Trust And Information In Literature Review944 Words   |  4 Pagesand Willingness to Take Action† written by Reneà © J. Johnson and Michael J. Scicchitano in its current form is unfit for publication. Johnson and Scicchitano should be commended for identifying a gap in our ability to accurately quantify the strength and intensity of environmental concerns. This gap is certainly worthy of further study; however, their execution and attempt to quantify this phenomena does not have the necessary wherewithal to close the gap in the literature as it stands. The problemsRead MoreParticipatory Action Research And Explanation1306 Words   |  6 PagesIn the reviewed literature, a case is made for participatory action research and explanation given on its composition and on how it enhances the quality of research (Greenwood et al, 1993). They define participatory action research as a type of research that brings together a member of the organization (insider) and an expert research to carry out the research process. Gibbons et al (1994) talks about the knowledge production mode as well as a number of author later (Huff and Huff, 2001; Huff, 2000;Read MoreLiterature Review On Childhood Trauma Essay1113 Words   |  5 Pages Literature Review Article Critique Jocelyn Claudio Widener University September 25, 2016 Overview The authors of this literature review evaluated studies completed on adults who were 50 years or older and also experienced trauma as a child. They reviewed the impact childhood trauma has on their mental and physical health as older adults. They collected findings from 23 studies that were published between 1996 through 2011 and concluded that childhood trauma did in fact have negativeRead MoreConstruction Industry : Statistics And Policy1344 Words   |  6 Pagesthat research shows that 4-5% of the contract value for residential construction is given over to rework cost. It is clear that the construction industry generates vast amounts of revenue and profits and the cost of reworks is an area where the main contractor or client must meet this cost from their profits or budget and its an issue that has not been rectified. For this reason major contractors are continuously taking actions to rectify this and implemented â€Å"zero defect† policies and action plans

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Theory of Cognitive Development and Children Free Essays

Discuss the concept of ‘constructivism’ (from Piaget’s theory of cognitive development). Use a mix of theory and research to back up your ideas about whether or not the child constructs his/her own development. The understanding of how children comprehend the world around them has been a highly researched part of cognitive development in Psychology. We will write a custom essay sample on Theory of Cognitive Development and Children or any similar topic only for you Order Now Jean Piaget was one of the first researchers to develop a theory suggesting that children understand the world around them by actively seeking information from their environment, and continuously expanding their knowledge by organizing, adapting and assimilating this information Berlin, (1992). Piaget’s theory known as constructivism theory, has undergone a high level of scrutiny, centring on the understanding of children’s cognitive abilities, and neglecting the intelligence of assistance. Through analysing current research this paper aims to explore Piaget’s constructivism theory. Children’s development has been a topic of interest since the 1920’s, following the creation of an intelligence test developed by Piaget and his colleagues where Piaget discovered that younger children made systematic mistakes from those of older age, consequently proposing that children change qualitatively with age, Bremner et al. (2012). Studying his own children Piaget formed the constructivism theory arguing that children built their knowledge through organization (children organize their information in schemas, assimilation (using pre-existing information) and adaptation and accommodation (adapting to the condition of the environment), by searching for in formation from their environment to expand their understanding of the world, Beilin, H. (1992). Piaget proposed children take an active role in their cognitive development, and independently construct the world around them. He proposed that children face different problems as they move through the stages, and it is the solving of these problems that teach them and assist them in learning and developing their thinking. The knowledge they receive from solving these actions are not imitated or innate, instead are ‘actively constructed’ by the child. In this sense, Piaget suggests that thought is obtained from action, when actions are internalised, ones thinking increases. The child is influenced by their previous ideas and new experiences, and based on this they construct new ideas. Piaget suggested that cognitive structuring, actions representing specific ‘acts’ of intelligence, is developed and linked to stages of child development. Piaget proposed children undergo four developmental stages where cognitive structuring occurs. These stages are sensorimotor stage (from birth to two years of age), preoperational stage (from three to seven years of age), concrete operations stage (from eight to eleven years of age), and formal operational stage (from twelve years of age until adulthood) Piaget, J. Inhelder, B. (1969). In the first stage, sensorimotor which Piaget divided into six sub-stages, intelligence is demonstrated through basic motor skills such as sucking to experimenting with external objects by using schemas in order to reach their goal. ). Piaget suggested that until the age of seven months (during their third sub-stage of sensory motor stage), infants do not understand that the world consists of permanent objects. He argues that if at this stage you hide an object in front of the infant they show disappointment or simply stop looking for the object as if the object disappeared. Not until infant reaches eight months (the fourth sub-stage of sensory motor stage), does the child start to look for hidden objects, which shows that at this stage infants start to understand object permanence, Piaget, J. Inhelder, B. (1969). One of Piaget’s studies that received a great deal of attention is the A-not-B error study, which he explains that if an object is hidden in front of an infant (location A); at around eight months of age they would reach toward the hidden object. However if the object is moved to a different location (location B) infants until twelve months of age would still reach for the first location. The failure to reach the correct location Piaget explains as egocentrism clamming that at this stage children fail to see the situation in a different point of view thinking that because the object was placed in the first location that that object would permanently be there, Piaget, J. Inhelder, B. (1969). Testing Piaget’s A-not-B theory Kaufman and Needham (1999) tested 40 six and a half month infants. Using habituation technique they concluded that infants looked longer when the objects were moved. Contrary to Piaget’s findings, they suggested that infant special orientation development happens at much earlier age, arguing that Piaget underestimated infant ability. The second and third stage Piaget proposed are the preoperational and concrete stage at this stage children understand object permanence (that objects continue to exist even though they cannot ee them) , spatial layouts and also the use of language for problem solving starts during the preoperational stage through constructing existing information and eventually expanding this information. However until the age of seven children still see the world from their egocentric view (i. e. refusing to see the world from a different point of view). At the concrete stage children are able to solve visual problems such as lining in order dolls from the tallest to the shortest, however they are not able to solve mental probl ems, Piaget, J. Inhelder, B. 1969). The fourth and last stage that Piaget proposed is the formal stage. At this stage Piaget argues that children can think abstractly, consider possibilities and formulate hypothesis. Piaget’s formal operational stage has been criticised by researchers such as Kuhn et al. ,(1982) who discovered that although constructing knowledge seems to be sufficient for the sensory-motor and preoperational stage, it does not seem to be the same case with the concrete and formal operational stage since not all adults show formal operational thought. There have been numerous studies conducted which provide support for constructivism theory. Guthrie et al (2004) compared different instructional methods for student’s reading skills, these methods included a strategies instruction approach, and an approach combining strategies instruction and constructivist motivation techniques, such as incorporating student choices, collaboration, and hands-on activities. The constructivist approach, called CORI (Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction) produced a high student reading comprehension, motivation, and cognitive strategies (Guthrie et al, 2004). Similarly Jong Suk Kim (Kim, 2005) found that when students were taught using constructivist-teaching methods, they achieved higher levels in academia compared to using traditional teaching methods. Students also voiced preferring constructivist methods over traditional ones. However, one of the biggest criticisms of Piaget’s theory has been the ignorance of social and cultural influences on child development. Contrary to Piaget, who believed that allowing children to experiment and express their own ideas enabled their constructive processes to develop knowledge, Vygotsky’s (1962) sociocultural theory proposed that learning and development are derived collaboratively from socialisation and education. He argued that simple knowledge such as perception and attention are mental abilities are innate, and although children actively developed their thought rocesses through the environment, they could also, with assistance from others, reach a higher level/stage of cognitive development than the stage they are at when they perform alone. Vygotsky named this ‘the zone of proximal development’, â€Å"†¦the distance between the actual development of a child as determined by the independent problem solving, and the level of potentia l development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more peers Vygotsky (1978)† Vygotsky’s (1978, p. 56). Therefore, although his theory is similar to Piaget in that he believes cognitive development is restricted to a limited range at a certain age, he believes that with the aid of social interaction, for instance the help of a mentor, an individual/child can understand concepts and schemas that they would be unable to comprehend alone. In this sense it questions the extent to which children construct their own environment and developments as children’s knowledge may develop at a much faster rate through interaction and guidance of more experienced peers , such as older siblings, parent or teachers, Gauvain and Cole (1997). Evidence supporting Vygotksy can be seen in a study by Gauvain et al. , (1997). He found that if you test a group of nine year old pupils with a number of problem solving skills (at Piaget’s concrete operational stage) and test a group of twelve year old pupils (at Piaget’s formal operational stage), and not assist them, they would show the same level of intelligence, concluding that knowledge is not simply constructed through experience but also through techniques taught by others. Similarly, Mayer (2004) proposed that â€Å"a recent replication is research showing that students learn to become better at solving mathematics problems when they study worked-out examples rather than when they solely engage in hands-on problem, Mayer (2004, p. 18) Conclusion Piaget’s four-stage knowledge development theory is highly researched criteria within developmental Psychology. The use of constructing previously learnt information into new information through experience seems to be more effective at an early age. His theory seems to underestimate the children’s ability and knowledge; however it overestimates adolescence ability. It also is unarguable that constructivism theory fails to acknowledge the social effects that have been shown to play a crucial part in knowledge development. However it is not to say that Piaget’s constructivism theory should be discarded altogether, since Piaget was the pioneer in introducing clinical methods to explore children’s thoughts. This remains the fundamental theory used in child development research. Moreover, as mentioned above, Piaget’s constructivism theory is highly used in schools, guiding teachers in how to enable children to explore their own environment through expression and experimentation. In conclusion, knowledge development could be acquired through both construction of ones own experiences, and the help of more experienced peers. References 1. Beilin, H. (1992). Piaget’s enduring contribution to developmental psychology. Developmental Psychology, 28, 191-204. 2. Bremner A. et al. , (1986). Developmental Psychology. Developmental Psychology. 3. Bodner, Gg. M. (1986). Constructivism a theory of knowledge. Journal of Chemical Education, 63, 873-878. 4. Gauvain M. and Cole. M. (1997). Readings on the development of children. W. H. Freeman and Company. New York. 5. Guthrie et al. , (2004) Increasing reading comprehension and engagement through concept oriented reading instructions. Journal of educational psychology, 96 (3), 403-423. 6. Kaufman, J. and Needham, A. (1999) Objective spatial coding in 6. 5-month-old infants in a visual dishabituation task. Developmental science, 2(4), 432-441. 7. Kuhn et al. , (1982), Systematic and metasystematic reasoning:A case for levels of reasoning beyond Piaget’s stage of formal operations. Developmental psychology, 53, 1058-1069. 8. Kim J. S. (2005). The effect of constructivist teaching approach on student’s academic achievements, self- concept and learning strategies. Asia pacific and education review, 6 (1) 7-19. 9. Mayer (2004). Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning? American Psychologist, 59 (1) 14-19. 10. Piaget, J. Inhelder, B. (1969). The Psychology of the Child. NY: Basic Books. 11. Vygotsky L. S. (1962). Thought and Language. Massachusetts: The M. I. T. Press. 12. Vygotsky L. S. (1978). Interaction between learning and development. Mind and society, Cambridge: Harvard university press. How to cite Theory of Cognitive Development and Children, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Frankensteins Monster Essay Example For Students

Frankensteins Monster Essay Since Shellys time, science has become more dangerous and developed significantly. If she looked at science in modern terms, would she still be against interfering with nature? Science can be a risk but depending upon the level of sophistication. In the 1800s people living to be 45-50 but now life expectancy has increased. A part of her argument is carried through to the modern era. In Shellys opinion, transplants, cosmetic surgeries and treatments are ambiguous because they are all a risk to the natural order of things as well as being beneficial to peoples health. Vector Frankenstein took the creating life matter to extremes. She never faced a particular dilemma where up to date treatments can extend the length of lives. Marry Shelly could have been a member of the 20th century religion entitled the Seventh Day Adventists. This group believe that if they interfere with nature by using modern medical advances then their souls will be banished to hell for eternity. The main scientific interests at that time was bringing things back to life and an experiment apparently was undertaken, where a piece of vermicelli was animated. In 1816 at Eton, Percy Shelly, Marys husband becomes interested in experiments with electric shocks, which caused the muscles of frogs to twitch. It is possible that Percy demonstrated the technique to Mary.  The monster was released from deep down in graves of departed souls just like the genie from the bottle. Once a will being is unleashed it cannot be put back in the bottle forever and the impact on the society and their memories cannot also put back in the bottle. While Vector was resurrecting a female monster his Id spoke and made him realise how the human race could be taken over by super beings. A new species would bless me as its creator this illustrates his first motivation was to become the leader of the new species but in time his one thought reversed. His creation would change nature; thy death is the only answer. In reality the hydrogen bomb could elevate the sea over Mount Everest and endower the world by embossing its name by touching any surface. The scream would be sent out of the world and dust wouldnt even settle in a thousand years. It will shake heaven and hell and death would be a plague upon mankind but its objective is only to bring harmony. Conversely, Frankenstein wanted to lead a new super king race that would bring a new world. The comparison between them shows they were both meant to be beneficial to mankind but both in truth became a danger to the human race. It comes down to blood; we can never undo a creation but to lock away this hideous, vitreous mortal, death for both; the creator and the monster will need to be undertaken. Even after the deaths, the fear of one concept of the devil returning will be in peoples reminiscences. Shelly convicts, the more cautious you are in applying science, the happier the paradise you live in.  Frankensteins celestial creation devoted his whole life and as an individual consequences are proceeded. Initially he was horrified by the very look of the monster. He became dizzy with the immensity of his sins. The seizing view of his yellow skin. Scarcely covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath; his hair was of a lustrous black, his teeth of a pearly whiteness. A more horrid contrast with his watery eyes and straight black lips. This punishes his creation of the fretful wretch staring at him. I had worked hard for nearly two years but now that I had finished, the beauty of the dream vanished, and breathless horror and disgust filled my heart. Unable to endure the aspect of the being I had created, I rushed out of the room. It was unbearable to look at, he was unsightly, scandalous, uncivilized my dream of beauty is a nightmare. This was just the start, the start of brutality. .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf , .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf .postImageUrl , .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf , .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf:hover , .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf:visited , .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf:active { border:0!important; } .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf:active , .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u80d402ddbe39237515eb27b58c0c6acf:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Bathsheba and Oak are both very significant characters in the book EssayThe outcast of the world escaped on the pleasant world. Emotionally it affected his soul. He was unable to study and lay sick with terror about the monsters solitude. Another exhausting side effect came upon swift wind to what he had invented. A child, his brother who hasnt met life yet but only just began his childhood. Murder of William his beloved brother, by the vile Monster; it was like a poison dagger touching his heart.  I suffered living torture. It was to be decided, whether the result of my curiosity and lawless devices would cause the death of two of my fellow-beings: one smiling babe, ful l of innocence and joy; the other far more dreadfully murdered. These words from Vector were not only words but every syllable was dreadful.  This possibly was the worst ever thing could happen but no, a valued member of his family was to be blamed and knowing the perpetrator he was powerless. Justine was going to be executed for something, which Vector enforced. Who would believe his solitude, his creation? Who would believe such a story could possibility be true. A magnified moral problem is between the matter of life and death. A mutant species could bring our natural life to an end. A choice had to be made, to be or not to be. If he, the creator of will beings satisfied the wretchs desire of a female monster then he would be the monster that mankind would be after. If instructions by the powerful creature were not complied with then I shall be with you on your weeding night. The verdict of this threat is to show a serious tragedy will be inevitable in the future if the sanctity of the monster may not meet. This means he has no love relation. He needs companionship to end his desolation. This deprived his remaining life, until the day of his weeding night. The monster satiated his words and devastated the life of Victor by murdering Elizabeth. Furious, murderous, insane, lifeless wretch I fell senseless to the ground. The emotional grief put Victor in a mental institute. No words could describe his agony, the incoming pain, mental pain is more demoralizing than physical pain. His emotions made him Scio. He felt like committing suicide and homicide. Now there is only one course of action revenge. His one thought, one conception and one purpose had now switched and the only thing left was for him to end his creation, the beast with his bare hands. Victors devoted his remaining life to end this paranormal creature. Finally the time came to put Frankensteins Monster; the genie back in the bottle where it belongs but not only that but Victors worthless life needed to be condemned. I confess that it is the devouring and only passion of my soul. My rage is unspeakable when I reflect that the murderer, whom I have turned loose upon society, still exists. This is Vectors debut, he made the monster from his bare hands and thereby he will destroy it with its bare tenders. The creator and the creation can be masked but the people of Geneva will always have the memories of the Monster. Shelly also put the idea across that you start with nothing and you finish with nothing. Hence, his greediness was an outcast to his life. Through her novel, Mary Shelly shows the readers potential dangers of science interfering with nature both globally and individually.